Can someone explain what are the differences between a "process" and "process framework"?
They aren't the same. A process framework provides the general principles for a process. It is the core if you will. A process implements the process framework, but it can have other tailored, unique or company specific components. For example, RUP is a process framework (it is generic), and when your company follows the principles of RUP (it is company specific the basic ideas are the same), it is a process.