What are the impact of personalities on the selection of the tools and techniques adopted with individuals? And what are the differing techniques needed when coaching different groups and individuals?
These are both incredibly broad questions and you should definitely be more specific in what you want to know.
However, I'm going to try answering it at least in part:
Personalities are the main factor in selecting coaching techniques and not only those of the coachees but also the personality of the coach.
The broad answer to this is, the coach has to be comfortable using the tool or technique and the coachee must be open to it. The technique must be 'getting through' from the sender to the recipient.
For you second question, I guess the only answer can be any and all you have may be needed. The bigger your toolbox is, the better your chances are of achieving successful outcomes with a specific group.
Metaphorically, only relying on a hammer, chisel and screw-driver will produce a mess when you are facing a can of paint and a white wall.
There are tons of techniques and tools to learn and tons of details to figure out when coaching somebody, but, writing this I come think there is a common denominator to both:
- Listen and watch. Most if not all coaching techniques rely heavily on both and they are core to figuring out what your students are open and receptive to.
- Interrupt. Don't interrupt your students when they talk to you, in that case stick with the above. Interrupt the pathways they're thinking and acting in. Interrupt their behavior. This leads to being open for new ideas and to embracing them or at least trying them out. And If they acted and thought the right way already, they wouldn't need coaching. If you don't believe this, think of all the stereotypical zen masters telling their students to empty their cups first. Now ask yourself if your cup regarding this current topic is empty enough.
- Reframe and rebuild. Breaking down the bridges they used to walk on may be essential to making room for new things, but don't throw the building blocks away. Re-use them. There are ideas and motivations associated with 'old' or 'un-coached' behavior that have power - after all they made them build those bridges - and that power can be channeled to fuel new ways of action if reframed right by the coach. The same goes for 'rejection' of a technique. That is just clinging to a bridge and there's a motivator for doing that.
There are way more points and I could go on for a while but understanding these three things gives you a good basis for coaching in general.