This is a fairly typical challenge for teams starting to use Kanban - how to manage input variability and to work with reasonably similar sized work items. Depending on how you manage it today, you might start with one method - and then evolve to others that help you better manage and measure your team's performance on a variety of metrics. For example, if you would like to be able to forecast how long it would take to complete work on a given backlog of items, it is useful to have historical data on similar sized, similar type of work items to base that forecast on.
Having said that, you could assign a "size" attribute to each task or work item. Typical Kanban systems use simple T-shirt sizing from Extra Small (XS) to Extra Large (XL). If you currently use some sort of a hierarchy to breakup large work into smaller items (Epics - User Stories, for example), you might consider doing that in your backlog and putting only the user stories on the progress board. You could even visualize this hierarchy on your Kanban board where you might have one swim-lane for the higher level items - and another for the 'child' items - as illustrated below.
As you start to work with the Kanban board, other ideas will emerge that help you decide what will work best for your team!