Unfortunately, I'm not aware that you can. It is a long awaited feature for Jira that I have voted on in the ticket referenced in the thread that Vadim has linked.
The way I get around this on one project is to use 'sub-boards' for different roles. Not each team member needs to see what everyone else is doing all the time and may only need to see a small section. So if appropriate, I can make a scrum board for that team with a sub-set of columns, that way the main board is clean and friendly using Kanban, but a smaller board can see the estimates and time remaining etc.
So as an example, say I have a reasonably complicated project on a Kanban board that has around 15 columns and about 20 statuses. That board overviews the entire project through a number of steps: writing stories/scoping, design, API dev, software dev, testing, release. Each of those sections of the process are carried out by a number of different teams and like anyone each team wants a really clear view of what they are working on, but also to see how the whole project is progressing. I could set up my boards roughly like:
Overview board - Kanban and all statuses
User story board - Kanban and first 5 columns
Design board - Scrum board and 3 columns
API dev board - Scrum and 3 columns
Software dev board - Scrum and 3 columns
Testing - Kanban and 3 columns
Release - Kanban and 3 columns
The other trick is that you don't have to call the columns the same thing in each board. So, the done column for design can be the to-do column for API dev.
It's not the most elegant solution, but until Jira possibly update to allow the time-tracking within a Kanban board its working for us as a workaround.