Rather than focus on a checklist, begin by asking what process can be put in place to encourage a team to identify and plan for risk before a project begins.
Why focus on process first? Because you are correct in thinking that getting people to use such a risk checklist will be difficult. People are so flooded with information and data that it can often be ignored. Plus, who will maintain the risk database? Will there be liability if a risk is listed in the database, but not applied to a project that later fails? How easy will it be to search for applicable risks?
There are two processes for risk planning that I recommend: pre-mortems and FMEA.
Pre-mortems are a less formal process that I learned about through an episode of Freakonomics Radio. Fast forward to minute 20 of this episode to hear pre-mortems explained. The general idea is that team members are asked to imagine the project has failed in a massive way. Then, they're asked to imagine causes of failure. I like this approach because it engages the whole team and because it is very focused on risks relevant to the specific project being discussed.
FMEA, or failure modes and effects analysis, is a more formal and structured approach for risk planning. FMEA is typically conducted either for components of a product, or for steps in a service delivery or design process. For software, an FMEA might consider each feature the software is intended to perform. For each feature, likelihood of failure, cost of failure, and likelihood of failure detection are rated from 1-10. Ratings are used to assign each feature a risk score, for example 1 x 1 x 1 is 1, or a very low risk, and 10 x 10 x 10 is a 1000, a very high risk. Features are then prioritized by risk score so that the highest risk items can be identified and addressed.
With either approach given above, it may be useful to have a risk checklist as you described in your question. The checklist may help people to generate a set of risks relevant to a project being planned. However, the real impact comes from putting a system in place that encourages teams to conduct pre-mortem or FMEA style analysis before work on a project begins.