This is a tough one to answer. I think a lot of discussion on this topic one might find out there is not much more than hyperbole. There have been some studies on leadership, where some traits were identified such as a high degree of motivation and drive, tolerance of high stress, competitiveness, impatience, tendency to be vision oriented, and other so called type A attributes. A lot of these studies are correlation based, not necessarily cause and effect. But management is different than leadership and project management is different than management. PM touches everything and everybody, starting like at age six. Every profession, job, and trade, even those that attract type B attributes, have to perform projects and those people certainly perform projects ranging from outstanding to poorly, just like those people who are more type A. So I would guess that even less of a correlation would be found with characteristics of a good PM than what was found on those studies on leadership.
While anecdotal, I have never noticed any consistent correlation between what I have thought was good PMing and a personality trait or characteristic. I've observed contrasting strengths and weaknesses, where some hard charging type As were fantastic in some PM tasks while miserable in others and vice versa with type Bs. I do, however, think there is a selection bias and halo effect, where certain attributes are selected despite performance.
So in my most humble opinion I don't think there is an answer for this question as of now. I do not think there is a substantiated set of characteristics that would reliably predict PM success.