I have a board with issues sorted by rank, I would like to create a filter with issues that are "higher" than particular issue.
I want to filter issues with rank >= SSP-4, so the result should be:
Don't do it. This is very brittle approach - if someone moves SSP-4 to the top, you'll have nothing else there. And what about when SSP-4 is completed/cancelled/blocked?
It sounds like you need to create a Sprint and put SSP-4 in it then negotiate with your Product Owner what else should go in.
In Jira go to search. Select your project, and leave the other criteria at default and the text field blank (meaning you are seeing everything in your project).
Go to the columns indicator and add "Rank", then just click on the column heading to sort Rank descending. Click the "Save As" button at the top to save your filter, name it, and you are good to go.
I have to say I don't fully understand what you are trying to do or why you would need this, so if this is not what you are looking for please give us more detail so we can provide better answers.