I want to create a board with different columns, but all of them have the same status, but belong to different "teams". So I'd like to have a column for each team. Is it possible to create a column based on a filter/query and not only on a status?
No, I don't believe that is possible. Furthermore, I don't see how it could be.
Consider the situation where you have two separate 'filter-columns', and a given story fits both filters. What would happen? Would it show up twice?
As an alternative, you could just add more statuses - 'In Progress Team A', 'In Progress Team B', etc. Simplest thing to do from there is just to include two statuses in each column, and each Team will drag theirs to the correct one when they move it. There might also be a way to automate it based on workflow and currently logged-in user.
Now the filter is visible on the top of the board. For more detail, please refer Atlassian Documentation