It sounds like your organization is immature from a capability standpoint as evidenced by the constant change in company direction or its goals, the lack of communication channels such that you do not receive company information timely, the lack of apparent governance, and non existent risk/issue/exception escalation processes. It sounds like you are working in a high degree of chaos.
While your company is out of control, it does not mean that you cannot maintain control within your project. Your communication plan should include a stakeholder analysis where you can direct your documented risks and exceptions for review. Your plan should include periodic meetings for both give and take with these stakeholders. And, perhaps you can identify a stakeholder or two that you can align as an ally who might be able to influence a degree of control within the company to help you. This should not be construed as going outside your chain of command but rather normal communication channels that all projects create (or should create).
Become more formal in your project, i.e., document everything. Not only is this generally good practice--if it is not documented it did not happen--but it can serve to sort of protect you if others start pointing fingers. As a contractor, you are only protected so much but, unless this company is completely off its rockers, if you can show you actively attempted to do the right thing by the project and company your risk is greatly diminished.
Regarding your boss, we tend to take the path of least resistance. His behavior with you is likely because he is coping with the same chaos. He needs you to make this project, and its risks and issues, easy for him. I would bet he wants you to make executive decisions above your pay grade such that it is off his plate. Dangerous proposition but he is likely doing the same for his boss.
Other than this, there is a degree of acceptance on your part. Your company is in chaos--if my assumption is true--and will likely remain there for some time. This will simply inhibit progress so your expectations need to align with that.