You have several options, if you are the Product Owner (PO) there are certain ways you can measure that. One of them is the sprint burndown which @Bodgan already referred to, that will tell you how many story points are done from the total, hence you can calculate a percentage or fraction of progress.
You also have the point of view of the value tied to each user story: this is, as a PO you should have a business value assigned to each item of the product backlog (which has nothing to do with the story points!), so if you see that certain stories are complete, you should have a measure of the value that was delivered upon that completion and that way you could say "hey, half of the sprint backlog is done", and it would be true from the product's perspective.
Notice that because value is not tied to story points or the number of items, you could easily have just 1 user story in "done" status with 95% of the value and 20 stories with the remaining 5%, and you could safely say that 95% of the sprint is done.
I think the question aimed to make you think of all the possible ways of answering it and in that way allow you to go over your knowledge of Scrum.