There is a lot to unwrap here, but it seems that you are in a company that is doing Scrum just by name:
- you don't have Sprint Goals (the 2017 version of the Scrum Guide mentions a sprint goal 27 times, the 2020 version 19 times);
- you don't have a product goal (the 2017 version doesn't use the words "product goal" but the 2020 version mentions it 15 times);
- CSP ScrumMasters tell you the goals are not needed;
- they stopped using Sprint Goals.
- the Scrum Guide is just a guide (true, but more on this below).
- to ensure team transparency, collaboration. Should I gather these aren't already happening?
- so that I know the project will be successful? Isn't there (or was) a product owner responsible for pointing the finger at the target and making sure the team is moving towards it?
Many companies say they are doing Scrum. They have Scrum Masters, they have Sprints, they have daily stand-ups, etc., but in fact just do some form of Waterfall where they have defined the product and now are going through the motions and just churn out tasks each sprint. Focus isn't on value but usually on schedule. The thing was defined so now it's just grunt work with nobody paying attention. So it's not really Scrum, it's a hybrid with some things taken from traditional project management and some from Agile (heavier on practices form the former).
Some companies end up like this after trying to adopt Scrum and failing to do so because of (usually) non-involvement and lack of support from managers and executives (i.e. trying to use Scrum in the development teams only, while everything else remains or is desired to stay the same). Some other companies end up in this situation because they don't understand what Scrum is all about and bring in the wrong kind of Scrum Masters to help them implement it.
Speaking of Scrum Masters, I want to make an aside about the fact that being certified doesn't mean anything. From how you phrased the sentence when mentioning certified scrum professionals, it seems to me that you somehow think that they should know what they are talking about. A certification only means that you studied some material and passes a multi-choice test. That's it. It doesn't guarantee that you then know how to apply the information and help and support a team. Besides, Scrum is a framework which means it doesn't cover all the things specific to each team, product, company, domain, technology, organizational culture, etc., things that can't be learned by pursuing a Scrum certification. A piece of paper doesn't help you navigate all these things.
These might get reflected in the answer you got that the Scrum Guide is just a guide. Yes it is, but it's a guide that outlines a framework (whose latest version mentions both of the things that your SMs say are not needed). So does this mean they haven't kept themselves up to date with what's going on? Does it mean the piece of paper was all they were after and are not really interested in the SM role (not pointing this out to the team is a failure of the Scrum Master)? Does it mean that they are looking at the guide like a list of items to check from a list and then stop there, without adding the needed things to complete the framework?
You need sprint goals and you need product goals. Both of these things are answering the question of "why are we doing this?". If you don't have sprint goals then the goals become to finish the tasks in the sprint. Sure,everyone is busy, everyone has something to do, you can even demo them at the end of the sprint, but why are those things needed? How are they valuable? How do they get you one step closer to what you are trying to achieve with the product goals?
If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there – Lewis Carroll
Finally, if you want to ensure transparency, collaboration and success of the project, then this won't be done by using sprint and product goals but by the people themselves and their openness to enact the Scrum values. So try to get the big picture first (you are now focusing on two items who are most likely a result of some other cause), present your solutions with arguments, get everyone involved in the discussion, and pay close attention to how they respond and where you get assistance and where you get push back.