On Tuckman model, do teams using Agile frameworks mature faster in comparison to teams using Waterfall?
Theoretically, yes. Practically, it's never that simple.
You could think about the Tuckman model as a chemical reaction that the team needs to pass through and eventually reach a mature state in which the team performs at its best. And chemical reactions can be speed up by use of catalysts or by having them occur in a certain environment, like one with a higher temperature, for example.
If you look at a team through the lens of the Tuckman model, teams mature faster if they work in an environment conducive to the activities and behaviors necessary for the team to pass from one stage to the other. A proper Agile environment I believe is more conducive to that.
In Agile, emphasis is placed on communication and collaboration. Each iteration, or at least on some short cadence, teams need to deliver something. This means real problems to solve, things to figure out and plan, conflict occurring that then needs to be addressed and resolved, etc. Going back to the earlier analogy, the chemical reaction occurs faster.
In Waterfall, communication and collaboration doesn't happen the same. People can easily end up just coordinating their work because work occurs in phases, which can be performed by different individuals within the team, work is passed from one phase to the other, etc. People can easily end up working on their own for much longer period of times than in an Agile implementation. In other words, the chemical reaction happens slower (and only increases in intensity towards the end of the project when things need to be put together and people are forced to now get fully involved with each other to integrate everything they worked on separately until then).
So I would say the yes, an Agile environment can speed up team maturity.
But I should also point out the obvious: it doesn't guarantee it. There are a lot of factors that contribute to teams reaching a level of maturity, or even the opposite of getting stuck in some stage or another of the Tuckman model or even going backwards: organizational culture, turnover within the team, experience of individuals and their motivation (e.g. mastery, autonomy, purpose), management style (e.g. Theory X and Y), clarity of goals and buy in into them, psychological safety, and so on.