I do not know if you're looking for a formula that applies to all organizations all the time but I do not think such a thing exists. There are two assessments an organization needs to make: 1) objective--risk capacity; 2) subjective--risk tolerance. Both of these are necessary in order for an organization to take on risk before risk avoidance.
Risk capacity is a calculated number on the degree of probabilistic loss an organization, or any of its sub-components, can assume whereby a dollar more loss than that calculated value challenges the viability for the organization as an ongoing concern. That capacity will be different for every organization and can be different within an organization year over year.
Risk tolerance is subjective and speaks to the desire to assume risk. An organization with a risk-averse culture will take on far less risk despite its capacity to take on more.
EDIT: Risk acceptance does not mean no treatment. This is the biggest travesty in the way risk is taught, i.e., we either mitigate OR accept OR transfer OR avoid. Acceptance refers to putting a hazard/uncertainty into play. It does not mean you don't mitigate the risk after putting it to play and it certainly does not mean 'do nothing' unless you are at your capacity for loss.