What the difference is between a methodology and a framework? And where does the process come into that story?

And perhaps, it would be good to have this comparison explained by using methodologies like Prince2, Framework like Scrum, ...


9 Answers 9


A methodology is a set of principles, tools and practices which can be used to guide processes to achieve a particular goal.

A framework is a loose but incomplete structure which leaves room for other practices and tools to be included but provides much of the process required.

If we look at the software equivalents, for instance, where applications are analogous to methodologies: Rails and Spring are two code-based frameworks which work with custom code to produce an application. GMail is an application.

In the same way, Scrum could be considered a framework, as it leaves room for teams to choose their own technical processes, development roles, etc. XP might be considered a methodology, as it provides guidelines for all the same things that Scrum does, along with relevant technical practices. I'm not familiar enough with Prince2 to comment, but you get the picture.

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    Scrum is a framework. scrumguides.org/scrum-guide.html Commented Apr 3, 2017 at 14:18
  • Scrum is not a method or a methodology, it is a framework, it means you have to tailor it to fit your own project needs
    – David Leal
    Commented Aug 22, 2019 at 19:57
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    @DavidLeal Scrum as it was originally conceived is a framework. Scrum as it's taught could be considered a framework, depending on who teaches it. There are a lot of people who take Scrum courses and exams, and who aren't given any kind of guidance as to how to tailor it, or enhance it, or even to tell if that tailoring is required. When new SMs are talking about how "The Scrum is sacred" and following the template questions without any adaptation, it isn't being treated as a framework any more.
    – Lunivore
    Commented Aug 22, 2019 at 22:15

PMBoK 4th Edition, glossary, page 437:

Methodology: A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline

The term "framework" is used over 20 times in the PMBoK but is not in the glossary. I find that somewhat odd...

Since we don't have a PMBoK authority reference, I prefer the defintion from WhatIs.com:

In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful.

I like the part about "expands the structure into something useful."


A framework is a structure, a logical way to classify, segment, categorize, or maintain something. I think of it as a noun.

A method is an action, a way of doing something. It would describe a process or set of procedures, activities, and a series of outputs along the way. This is more of a verb.

A framework might be something to which you aspire. The method will get you there.

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    I don't know why you got a downvote, it seems to me your answer is pretty sensible and easy to understand. And inline with @Undercover Brother's answer. Commented Nov 20, 2017 at 12:39

I would agree with Lunivore and SBWorks - their inputs are from both an academic and from a professional industry-based perspective - seasoned with common sense and an understanding of the English langauge

(which is pretty LOW in the UK, Australia, Canada, NZ and the USA - I constantly see immigrants who have a good laugh at the local's language disasters)

I’d go with dictionary definitions, and apply those definitions to a situation.

The problem is, if you try and look at the ‘industry’, essentially you have a bunch of self-propagating trash - in that each corporate publishes its version of life.

E.g. IBM calls it's framework based on the Unified Process a 'process' - the Rational Unified Process - which is actually a framework when you look at it. Coming from a big player in the industry, this is misinformation and bad terminology at its best.

As for enterprise terminology re: frameworks and methodologies, most corporates and government agencies are run by morons who have their own definitions of these terms - probably inspired by IBM.

(pardon my French!)

I’ve seen at least one top level official (CIO/CEO/CFO/CTO) look at a process flow diagram and call it a ‘framework’.

BoKs are bodies of knowledge that describe elements and knowledge areas that may be used as a framework, and approaches to building models/methodologies based on that framework.

Academic definitions of a framework suggest that unless you bundle standards, procedures and processes together at an enterprise level, you don’t have a framework.

Until you distill a framework into tools, methodologies governing processes, and standards that act as gateways in a procedure within those methodologies, you don’t have a methodology.

Very broadly, the Framework is ‘what’ the enterprise is aiming for, or the 'where' for that matter- in the broadest sense, and the Methodology is the ‘how’ that includes methods, tools etc.

I’m sure every corporate worth its shares would be out there molesting that definition till it is no more sensible than the US Dollar as a reserve currency.


Being an Analyst at Software Firm, I will try to explain it with a simple real time example, hope it may help. Suppose you work in a organization, where you get proper notifications prior to things get implement, emails, support from your higher management, these are the set of attributes reference as a framework of saying that organization have mature processes.

Rather, when you go in a formal way and see that your organization qualifies the certification of process maintenance awarded from an auditor is actually a process which says that the organizations actually follows the processes.

Hereby, process can be a more formal attribute and framework as a real time attribute.


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    Hi Rahul Bansal. The question is about the difference between framework and methodology. You forgot to mention the methodology part. Consider editing the question or write this as a comment. Commented Aug 14, 2019 at 10:46

In software engineering, framework usually refers to defining structural and organizational boundaries to standardize interoperability.

Methodology refers to the process that needs to be followed along with a set of best practices, safe guards and guidelines that have resulted in consistent quality output that meet expectations/requirements/quality/security standards.


Structural & organizational boundaries:

  • from a people perspective includes defining people who will manage, people who will define work and people who will work.
  • from a product perspective includes defining technology that will be used, stages or environments the product will be developed / tested, tools that are approved for use or will enable.


  • From a people perspective, we define how people are managed, what meetings to have, when to have, who should lead and what actions items are to be taken, what are the milestones and which metrics to use. All these definitions are created for the project because they logically lead to accomplishing goals.
  • From a product perspective, we define requirement gathering, planning, designing, brainstorming, development, testing, deployment and validation/verification. Each stage has guidelines and best practices that when followed will lead to achieving desirable goals.

here are some suggestions to getting use to framework and methodology: ( I have been thinking about the same thing these days too)

  1. by observation, determine the state of being the person, company, country likes, its doesnt have to make sense usually what we see are not "truth" just someone's manifest of their own version of life ( like undercover bother said )

  2. decide if you like it, if you can accept it

  3. if you cant just leave, life is too short to struggle
  4. if you can than start thinking how to make that phenomenon happen, chances are you will find a lot of already developed ways and makes sense, and just go along with it

the ideal might not be as you think but as long as you can accept, than you are at a good place.


Scrum: Framework or Methodology?

Per definition, Scrum is an Agile framework. Some see it as a methodology, though. Now, who’s right? It really depends on how you look at it.

First, let’s try to clarify the difference between framework and methodology. In this context, a framework is a loose guideline, that defines the main structure of software development. However, it doesn’t dictate how to do certain things. A framework is not a step-by-step recipe, in that it doesn’t tell us what tools and processes to rely on.

Given a framework, we can define the way we want to achieve our goals. Now we’ve got both a structure and a set of standards, tools, and practices. That’s the methodology.

You have a methodology if you fill in the gaps of the structure defined by a framework.

Now, let’s go back to our original question. Is Scrum a framework or a methodology? Scrum defines a structure for sure: it tells us that we need development Sprints, with Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Retrospective meetings. Thus, Scrum fits the definition of a framework.

Does Scrum tell us what tools to use, such as Excel for planning, Trello for progress tracking, or Microsoft Visio for designing our software? Nope!

So, Scrum is a framework, not a methodology, right? Well, not so quick! Many people perceive Scrum as a methodology because the tools and the standards are already given. Mature software development companies don’t have to introduce new software and processes, just adapt the existing ones to the structure provided by Scrum.

I’ve witnessed several transitions from Waterfall to Agile that didn’t require significant changes in tooling, but rather in people's minds.


Quick Response

Basically, a framework gives you a general structure to work within, while a methodology gives you a specific set of instructions to follow.


A framework is like a structure or a set of guidelines that provide a general outline for how you can approach a project.

It's like the basic skeleton that you can use to organize your project tasks and activities.

Frameworks don't tell you exactly what to do at every step, but they give you a framework to adapt and build upon.


A methodology is a more detailed and specific approach that provides step-by-step instructions on how to manage a project.

It's like a detailed recipe that tells you what to do at each stage of the project.

Methodologies are often more prescriptive and can be a great help for teams that want a clear and structured path to follow.

An example of a methodology is "Agile," which breaks down the project into smaller iterations and emphasizes flexibility and collaboration.

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